2011 ILW and Torchbearer Publications
U.S. Army North/Fifth Army: Building Relationships for a Secure Homeland
(Torchbearer Issue Paper, December 2011)
This Torchbearer Issue Paper examines how U.S. Army North (ARNORTH) is improving the enduring military-to-military relationships with border nations, growing the relationship with the reserve component—especially the National Guard—and strengthening the military-to-civilian relationships with federal, state and local authorities; together these relationships form the foundation of a deep and credible protection of the homeland.
The U.S. Army in Europe: A Pillar of America’s Defense Strategy
(Torchbearer Issue Paper, December 2011)
This Torchbearer Issue Paper examines USAREUR as a strategic force that provides capability and options to the nation in support of its global role while supporting the directives to prevail, prevent, prepare and preserve. The paper posits that as one of the premier instruments for rapid, multinational power projection, U.S. Army Europe must be maintained at an effective level. As the land component for U.S. European Command, USAREUR directly affects the United States’ ability to execute national strategic imperatives and appropriately share the burden of collective security.
Military Retiree Health Care Faces a Triple Whammy
(Torchbearer Issue Paper, November 2011)
This Torchbearer Issue Paper discusses the ways in which health care benefits for military retirees are rapidly shrinking. The aggregate impact has begun to yield serious consequences for military retirees at stages of their lives when they have little financial flexibility. Although no single legislative action or major proposal has placed an unbearable health care burden on the military retiree, the cumulative effect of numerous small-cost increases approaches such a burden. This issue paper examines how the nation can afford to keep its critical all-volunteer force and pay for the benefits owed to the select few who earn them. Ultimately, the paper posits that the nation’s debt crisis cannot and should not be alleviated on the backs of those few who answer duty’s call.
The U.S. Army Squad: Foundation of the Decisive Force
(Torchbearer National Security Report, October 2011)
This Torchbearer National Security Report discusses future equipping strategies that must make the squad as competitive for resources as major weapon and vehicle programs. To facilitate resourcing the squad as the foundation of the decisive force, the Army is taking a bottom-up approach to codifying requirements and capabilities needed to dominate the current and future fights. The Army is working to improve the following key capability areas: training, leader development, the network, mobility, power and energy, the human dimension, lethality and force protection. In examining each of these areas, the report examines the plans the Army must develop and implement to fully empower its squads for success.
Unleashing Unlimited Potential: The Army Warrior Care and Transition Program in 2011
(Defense Report 11-4, October 2011)
This Defense Report examines how the Warrior Transition Command (WTC), which oversees the Army’s Warrior Care and Transition Program (WCTP), has made impressive progress in automation, documentation and training programs for medical, rehabilitation, patient care, ministry and other professionals who work with each Soldier and family to put together a step-by-step, comprehensive plan for recovery and preparation for the future. Also implemented over the past year is the Army Warrior Care Tracking System (AWCTS), which provides improved capabilities to track each Soldier’s progress every step of the way. Over the past year WTC has addressed all 56 recommendations made by a November 2010 Department of the Army Inspector General (IG) report on the WCTP. This Defense Report discusses the implementation of some of the best practices that resulted from these recommendations.
A Case for Human Dimension Training: Decision Science and Its Potential for Improved Soldier Resilience and Decisionmaking at Every Level
by Kevin M. Felix (Land Warfare Paper 85, October 2011)
This Land Warfare Paper examines decision science, a field that explores the interconnected influences of emotion, neuroscience and psychology in shaping human judgments. The Soldier as teammate, team leader, decisionmaker, member of a household and individual can benefit from current and future decision science research. It can start a positive chain reaction of better-informed decisions for the Soldier at home and on the battlefield. The author argues that creating a cadre of “decision engineers” has the potential to bridge existing gaps between science and military application and to push decision science further, by looking for continuous applications within the domain of the Soldier as individual and as leader/decisionmaker. The basic result of this research—greater emotional self-awareness for Soldiers—can come about through the growth, understanding and application of decision science.
Network Integration Evaluations: Developing Technologies with the Army’s Industry Partners
(Defense Report 11-3, October 2011)
This Defense Report examines how Network Integration Evaluations (NIEs) represent a new way of doing business for the Army; the NIE series is designed to evaluate and integrate emerging technologies before they are sent downrange. The first NIE is resulting in numerous key lessons learned regarding networking technologies. Future NIEs, currently in the planning stages, will accommodate these changes and work to establish a network baseline. Networking the individual dismounted Soldier so as to ensure improved battlefield awareness is a key element of the ongoing NIE process.
Fiscal Year 2012 Army Budget: An Analysis
(ILW Special Report, September 2011)
Fiscal Year 2012 Army Budget: An Analysis details the resources required for the Army to accomplish its missions today and tomorrow. It examines the Army’s proposed budget in the context of the federal and Department of Defense budgets and breaks down requests according to funding authority and programs, from Soldiers’ pay to research and development. It explains budget terminology and procedures, including the supplemental funding process that is necessary for the Army to sustain the current level of operations and provide for Soldiers.
U.S. Army Pacific Contingency Command Post: A Theater-Army Expeditionary Capability
(Torchbearer Issue Paper, September 2011)
This Torchbearer Issue Paper discusses how the theater-army contingency command post (CCP) provides the commanding general of U.S. Army Pacific (USARPAC) with a small, rapidly deployable cell that brings prompt command, control and liaison capability to U.S. and allied forces in the region. It will increase the response options for combatant commanders and decrease response times for regional contingencies. As the U.S. national strategy elevates the importance of assistance and response, the CCP’s flexible mission capability, small size and ease of deployment will prove invaluable. The opportunities to expand operations and partnerships in historically economy-of-force theaters, even if they start small, must be pursued to give the United States the global relationships required for strategic flexibility. Ultimately the question is not whether the contingency command post will be useful but whether one per theater will be enough.
U.S. Army Retirees: Retired Pay and Health Care at Risk
(Torchbearer Alert, September 2011)
This Torchbearer Alert examines current and potential legislation that may threaten military retiree pay and health care. It gives an overview of the current legislation and future possibilities, calling for readers to voice their support for the full value of military retirement and health care earned benefits (deferred compensation) and ask their Members of Congress to protect the interests of those who have served.
U.S. Army Training for Unified Land Operations
(Torchbearer National Security Report, September 2011)
This Torchbearer National Security Report recognizes that the current Army doctrine of FSO is evolving toward the concept of unified land operations. Unified land operations—seizing, retaining and exploiting the initiative to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations to create the conditions for favorable conflict termination—are executed through FSO by means of the core competencies of combined-arms maneuver (CAM) and wide-area security (WAS) and guided throughout by Mission Command. As the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq progress toward conclusion, the Army is returning to its focus on the core competencies of CAM and WAS. By restoring a set of skills and disciplines atrophied by a decade of theater-specific training, the Army is restoring balance to its capabilities and will be better prepared for its worldwide, expeditionary mission.
Laying the Groundwork for the Army of 2020
(Landpower Essay 11-2, August 2011)
This Landpower Essay comprises the remarks of General Robert W. Cone, Commanding General, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), at AUSA’s Combined Arms Maneuver Symposium and Exposition in Kansas City, Missouri, on 26 July 2011. General Cone describes the Army Concept Framework—a series of seminal ideas published by TRADOC to define capabilities for 2020—which consists of the Army Capstone Concept, the Army Operating Concept and the six warfighting functional concepts. He outlines a vision for the future force—the Army of 2020—and discusses how the core competencies of combined-arms maneuver and wide-area security play a vital role in creating the ability to conduct future unified land operations.
One Step Forward, Two Steps Back: Mission Command versus the Army Personnel System
by Donald E. Vandergriff (Land Warfare Paper 84, August 2011)
This Land Warfare Paper examines how Mission Command would operate in contrast to the environment the U.S. Army has known since the Industrial Age. According to the author, Mission Command would inevitably see a reduction in undue competition between officers and noncommissioned officers; with this shift, trust and flexibility would become more widespread throughout the institution. This paper addresses the cultural ramifications that make the U.S. Army personnel system perfectly suited to support Mission Command because its members are managed as professionals. In his support of Mission Command, the author poses many questions that must be addressed in order to develop a feasible and efficient personnel system to support the U.S. Army in the 21st century.
The Professional Military Ethic and Political Dissent: Has the Line Moved?
by Eric A. Hollister (Land Warfare Paper 83, August 2011)
This Land Warfare Paper discusses how the military–political line has moved since the United States won its independence. Legislation intended to keep the country’s military leaders and servicemembers out of political debates and decisionmaking has often proved insufficiently specific, opening statutes and regulations to a wide variety of interpretations. The author attests that legislation is not the primary issue in determining the military–political boundary. Rather, the country’s military and political leaders need to reassess how this line should be drawn when considered alongside the current operational environment, generational shifts and technological innovations.
First with the Truth: Synchronized Communications in the Counterinsurgency Fight
by Richard D. Hooker, Jr. (Landpower Essay 11-1, August 2011)
This Landpower Essay examines how Combined Joint Task Force (CJTF) 82’s experience in Operation Enduring Freedom suggests a way ahead for mastering the information domain in counterinsurgency. The 82d Airborne Division’s 2009–2010 rotation as the core headquarters for CJTF82 and Regional Command(East)—RC(E)—in Afghanistan marked an innovative break with the past in evolving counterinsurgency (COIN) doctrine and practice. In the critical area of synchronized communications, CJTF82 implemented new approaches at the CJTF level. Both structural and conceptual, these changes marked a clear departure from past practices, refined existing procedures and suggested new doctrinal concepts and approaches.
Resetting Reserve Component Units: Taking Care of Soldiers and Families
(Torchbearer National Security Report, July 2011)
This Torchbearer National Security Report examines how the unprecedented pace of repeated RC deployments has made resetting the force—returning units, Soldiers and families to the level of readiness necessary for future missions—a formidable challenge. During reset, these Soldiers need to assimilate back into their local communities by reuniting with family, having timely and predictable access to health care-related resources, engaging successfully with the civilian workforce and pursuing educational opportunities. Both the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve have instituted a variety of programs and initiatives during the past ten years to ameliorate these challenges and take care of Soldiers and their families; these efforts have made the RC’s contributions much more sustainable and have greatly facilitated the Army’s retention of the invaluable experience found today within its ranks.
Equipping the Reserve Component for Mission Success at Home and Abroad
(Defense Report 11-2, June 2011)
This Defense Report examines how the Army plans to evaluate and implement recommendations from the Independent Panel Review of Reserve Component Employment in an Era of Persistent Conflict study commissioned by the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff, Army in May 2010. Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn triggered a paradigm shift that transitioned the RC from a strategic reserve to an operational reserve. However, despite the cooperation on the battlefield, changing conditions and preexisting equipment shortages present new issues concerning equipment transfers and automation systems. This Defense Report discusses what steps the Army has taken, with great success, in efforts to develop transparent equipment processes and to better equip Soldiers—both in the RC and AC—who are going into harm’s way with the most capable systems possible.
The 2011 National Military Strategy: Resetting a Strong Foundation
by Nicholas R. Krueger (National Security Watch 11-2, 2 May 2011)
This National Security Watch examines how the international security environment has changed since the previous National Military Strategy was produced in 2004 and how these changes have shaped the 2011 National Military Strategy. The NMS serves two main purposes: to assess the global security situation and some emerging forces likely to mold it in the future, and to identify a set of discrete national military objectives that define the main missions to be undertaken by the armed forces. The 2011 NMS discusses challenges presented by ten years of continuous combat operations, the longest span in our country’s history. During this time, America’s adversaries have been innovative: state actors have been arming, nonstate actors have been subverting and the nexus of state and nonstate actors has become even more threatening. The new NMS incorporates these recent developments and aims to supply the armed forces with strategic direction for the future.
U.S. Army Energy Security and Sustainability: Vital to National Defense
(Torchbearer National Security Report, April 2011)
This Torchbearer National Security Report examines the Army's growing challenges to its energy supply at home and abroad. It is essential that the Army take significant steps today to protect reliable access to energy, water and other natural resources to preserve strategic choice and operational flexibility into the future. The Army is addressing the ideas of sustainability and energy security through the development of a forcewide energy doctrine and operating principles. In particular, the sustainability principle seeks to instill Army-wide change in both culture and practice with regard to energy consumption and generation. Technological investments and developments, operational training, education and facilities management are all critical aspects of instilling a mindset of conservation, efficiency and sustainability. This total institutional change is driving the Army's movement toward the concept of Net Zero.
What Drives Pakistan’s Interest in Afghanistan?
by Christopher L. Budihas (Land Warfare Paper 82, April 2011)
This Land Warfare Paper examines the current regional dynamics that explain how national security drives Pakistan’s ultimate interest in controlling Afghanistan. To preserve national unity, Pakistan must use Afghanistan to guard against internal militant groups as well as its aggressive Indian neighbor. Stable national security is also necessary for Pakistan to achieve the economic growth necessary to achieve global leadership within the international community. The author also provides recommendations for future U.S. strategies and finds that failure to understand the complexities analyzed in this article could lead to a failed NATO strategy in Afghanistan and a debunked U.S.–Pakistani–Afghan partnership. With Pakistan’s security, politics and economy inextricably linked with Afghanistan, the relationship between these two countries must be recognized by regional and international policymakers.
Win, Learn, Focus, Adapt, Win Again
by General Martin E. Dempsey (ILW Special Report, March 2011)
This compilation of writings by General Martin E. Dempsey—six articles published in ARMY magazine from October 2010 to March 2011, plus the speech he delivered at AUSA’s 2011 Winter Symposium in February—captures the mutual focus of General Dempsey and General George W. Casey on what our Army must do to shape itself for the future. These articles are based around an ongoing dialog, which also included other senior Army leaders, that has been focused on charting the Army’s direction when, after years of combat, it again transitions as a trained and ready force into another uncertain future such as we faced after the Gulf War. There is recognition that our Army is always a force in transition, that it will expand and contract, train and deploy, and perpetually modify its Tables of Organization and Equipment.
The Enduring Need for an Effective U.S. Landpower Presence in Europe
by Douglas J. Schaffer (National Security Watch 11-1, 14 February 2011)
This National Secuirty Watch examines U.S. landpower in Europe and its importance to preserving strategic flexibility and regional stability while preserving the legitimacy and efficacy of multinational coalition operations around the globe. U.S. global power in the modern era rests on a set of enduring strategic principles that remain constant in a shifting political landscape. Collective defense, ally reassurance, crisis response, partner building and freedom of action are fundamental pillars to U.S. strategic stability. U.S. landpower in Europe has been the embodiment of those principles for the last half century, clearly demonstrating the nation’s commitment and strategic intent to international peace and stability. Recent discussions about budgets, burden-sharing and force retrenchments have cast an ominous shadow over U.S. landpower in Europe, despite its significant current and future value in support of U.S. strategic interests around the globe.
The French-British Defense Treaty: Setting History Aside?
(Defense Report 11-1, January 2011)
This Defense Report examines the “Declaration on Defence and Security Co-operation,” a defense treaty signed by France and Britain on 2 November 2010. This Defense Report looks at how the treaty may pave the way to a new level of cooperation, surpassing anything previously achieved between the two countries on a bilateral basis. France and Britain are well matched to cooperate on defense as equal partners, given the similarities in national objectives and capabilities. This report discusses how the steps put forth in the treaty will rely on commonality of policy and objectives.