Assembly Line to Custom Design: Reforming the Officer Development System
by Kent W. Park (Land Warfare Paper 81, October 2010)
This Land Warfare Paper discusses a whole-of-government approach to address future security threats. This approach calls for government agencies to leverage civilian expertise to provide integrated “soft-power” solutions to complement proven “hard-power” options. The paper examines how the U.S. government’s plan to combine these two approaches into an effective strategy (“smart power”) also necessitates an understanding that the development of junior officers is the most effective way to shape organizational culture. According to the author, this bottom-up approach requires a long-term perspective but will ultimately create the most durable cultural change.
by Ernest Y. Wong (Land Warfare Paper 80, October 2010)
Leveraging Science in the Manoeuvrist Approach to Counterinsurgency Operations
This Land Warfare Paper examines how military planners can utilize modern scientific principles to improve understanding of insurgencies and leverage what is learned into even better counterinsurgency (COIN) doctrine. In particular, the author addresses what we can discern from Disruptive Change, Complexity Theory and Markov Chains to help in formulating winning COIN strategies that will prevail in the 21st century. The paper discusses how the Manoeuvrist Approach, which British military doctrine defines as a focus on shattering an enemy’s will to fight through skillful identification of the enemy’s vulnerabilities, is instrumental to analyzing the insurgent fight.
A Shot in the Dark: The Futility of Long-Range Modernization Planning
by Eric A. Hollister (Land Warfare Paper 79, October 2010)
This Land Warfare Paper shows why the utility of long-range future modernization planning should be revisited in this era of persistent conflict. According to the author, the complexities of the environments for which the Army is required to plan makes predicting the future—and being prepared for the next war—impossible. The author examines changes that occurred during the post-Vietnam era, includes a review of past Army futures studies and discusses the Army’s most recent attempt at modernization, the Future Combat Systems program. The paper uses the National Security Strategy, the Quadrennial Defense Review and the Army Modernization Strategy to suggest a framework for future modernization and a less risky method for long-range futures studies.
Fiscal Year 2011 Army Budget: An Analysis
(ILW Special Report, October 2010)
Fiscal Year 2011 Army Budget: An Analysis details the resources required for the Army to accomplish its missions today and tomorrow. It examines the Army’s proposed budget in the context of the federal and Department of Defense budgets and breaks down requests according to funding authority and programs, from Soldiers’ pay to research and development. It explains budget terminology and procedures, including the supplemental funding process that is necessary for the Army to sustain the current level of operations and provide for Soldiers.
Capability Portfolio Reviews
(Defense Report 10-3, September 2010)
This Defense Report takes a look at the Capability Portfolio Review (CPR), a new tool created to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the whole range of Army programs, both material and non-material. While not designed to cut or save a certain dollar amount, the CPR is supposed to reveal potential savings by validating the link between requirements and capabilities. Two of 11 total CPRs have concluded, with the remainder scheduled to proceed over the next five years, ensuring that the warfighter receives the maximum capability and the taxpayer derives maximum value.
Looking Forward: People First
by Gregory Motes (Landpower Essay 10-2, September 2010)
This Landpower Essay examines the future operating environment of the U.S. Army in a world increasingly dependent on new technology. The author discusses the importance of educating and training Soldiers and leaders while developing new devices, systems and data networks. The author proposes that a balance between knowledge about technology and knowledge derived from contextual training or introspection will best ready the U.S. Army for future demands and challenges.
Grey Eminence: Fox Conner and the Art of Mentorship
by Edward Cox (Land Warfare Paper 78W, September 2010)
This Land Warfare Paper combines existing scholarship with long-forgotten references and unpublished original sources to achieve a comprehensive picture of Fox Conner, a dedicated public servant whose life and service to the Army and the nation are revealed primarily through passing references in the memoirs of other great men. Conner’s influence helped to shape the careers of George Patton, George Marshall and, most notably, President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The portrait that emerges here also provides a four-step model for developing strategic leaders that still holds true today.
New NATO Member States: The Benefits and Drawbacks of Enlargement
by Christine Le Jeune (Land Warfare Paper 77, September 2010)
This Land Warfare Paper addresses the question of NATO’s relevance by examining the results of its geographical expansion. Regardless of the conclusions reached in NATO’s 2010 Strategic Concept, the fact remains that the alliance is only as strong as its member states. A fundamental question over the past years has been whether or not NATO expanded too quickly to include members not able to effectively contribute to the collective security capabilities necessary for it to remain a credible defensive alliance. The paper examines this question by taking a closer look at the defense transformation of Slovenia and Bulgaria, two Southeast European states both admitted during the 2004 round of expansion.
Consequence Management: Steps in the Right Direction? by Christine Le Jeune (National Security Watch 10-2, 8 September 2010)
This National Security Watch takes a look at the need to build capacity to respond to major national incidents—natural disasters, terrorism, large-scale cyber attacks, pandemics and other potential threats—and the collaborative efforts of federal, state and local governments, communities and public/private partnerships that are necessary to achieve that goal.
Profile of the U.S. Army – A Reference Handbook (2010 Edition)
(ILW Special Report, July 2010)
A user-friendly reference book for people familiar with the Army and an easy-to-read introduction for family members, civilian employees, contractors and future Soldiers—takes a top-down approach, first describing the Army’s role as a key element in the national security structure and then flowing into the “why” and “how” of the Army’s organization. It also contains information and helpful graphics on the Soldier, the uniform, the Army’s command structure, Army families, installations and the Army’s current operations. For readers wishing to seek more details, each chapter includes a list of relevant websites. Finally, Profile contains a glossary of acronyms and maps illustrating locations of current Army combat corps and divisions, Army National Guard divisions and brigade combat teams, and Army Reserve direct reporting commands.
The (New?) National Security Strategy
by Douglas J. Schaffer (National Security Watch 10-1, 20 July 2010)
This National Secuirty Watch compares the 2010 National Security Strategy (NSS) of the United States with previous versions in the context of goals, ways and means. While widely considered a departure from previous iterations, a closer look at the 2010 NSS compared to those of 2002 and 2006 show it to be not that substantively different. Additionally, the 2010 NSS advances a broad agenda that poses unique challenges to the planning and budgeting process; success will be largely dependent on the ability of the United States to organize and provide itself the means to execute.
Today's Training and Education (Development) Revolution: The Future is Now
by Donald E. Vandergriff (Land Warfare Paper 76, April 2010)
This Land Warfare Paper discusses the changes the Army is making to its educational system to provide Soldiers with the best tools for success on the battlefield. Today’s highly complex operations have emphasized the importance of quality decisionmaking at junior levels. Even with modern command, control, communications, computer, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) capabilities, the noncommissioned officer or junior officer on the ground sometimes has the best situational awareness and thus is likely to make the best decision—but only if he or she is equipped, intellectually and culturally, to properly assess the situation and creatively arrive at the best solution. Adaptability, critical thinking and creativity have become critical skills for modern Soldiers. The Army’s new approach, Outcomes-Based Training & Education (OBT&E), is an educational philosophy that teaches both basic skills and aids the development of leaders, using the Combat Applications Training Course (CATC ) and the Adaptive Leader Methodology (ALM). These new training and education tools will produce the kind of flexible, adaptable Soldiers and leaders the modern battlefield demands.
The Army Capstone Concept and Institutional Adaptation
(Landpower Essay No. 10-1, March 2010)
Landpower Essay 10-1 is a transcript of remarks made by GEN Martin E. Dempsey, Commanding General, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, during AUSA's Winter Symposium and Exposition in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, on 25 February 2010. He discusses the latest revision to the Army Capstone Concept, published in December 2009, that describes the broad capabilities the Army will require between now and 2028 to defend America and help to secure U.S. interests in the world. This Capstone Concept reconsiders, rethinks and challenges previous assumptions now that eight years of war have passed and the Army knows more about the 21st century enemy. GEN Dempsey describes the Army's objectives of decentralization, improved mission command, leader development and improving the Army's training and education system.
The 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review: Refocusing Priorities
(Defense Report 10-2, March 2010)
Defense Report 10-2 discusses the Defense Department's strategy outlined in the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review Report. The report itself describes the security environment and America's role in the world to provide context for its examination of all the elements of U.S. national defense plans, programs and policies. Four broad objectives are established: to prevail in today's wars; to prevent and deter conflict; to prepare to defeat adversaries and succeed in a wide range of contingencies; and to preserve and enhance the All-Volunteer Force. These top priorities set the direction that defense planning will take for the next four years.
The Army Management Enterprise
(Defense Report 10-1, February 2010)
Defense Report 10-1 briefly examines how the Office of Business Transformation (OBT), established in April 2009, will help the Army run its business operations more effectively and efficiently, including business systems architecture, information technology acquisition oversight and business process reengineering. In October 2009, the Under Secretary of the Army was designated as the Army's Chief Management Officer, to work with the Army Secretary and other pertinent stakeholders to determine the missions, roles, responsibilities and staffing of the OBT. The Army's business transformation is driven by an urgent requirement to align the end-to-end business processes of the generating force, and the capabilities they provide, to the operational needs of an expeditionary and campaign-capable force.