U.S. Army Aviation and Full-Spectrum Operations(Torchbearer National Security Report, December 2010)
This Torchbearer National Security Report examines the ways in which the Army has conducted several expansive self-assessments over the last decade to ensure it is configured, manned and equipped to meet the nation’s warfighting needs. The Army has embraced the transformative model that strives to dominate the current fight while preparing for the future by capitalizing on a deliberate and effective reinvestment strategy. This modernization strategy, including missile-warning systems and countermeasures, improved performance engines and upgraded sensors and monitors, will provide greater situational awareness and capability for aviation warfighters on future battlefields. The demands of current battlespaces have placed Army aviation at the forefront of these operations.
The Army National Guard’s Path to Greater Resilience
(Torchbearer Issue Paper, December 2010)
This Torchbearer Issue Paper examines the Army National Guard’s response to the toll that multiple deployments and two long and ongoing wars have taken. Army leaders are continuously seeking methods and establishing programs to further support Soldiers and their families. With this in mind, several states have developed comprehensive social support and mental health initiatives. These programs emerged out of a need to deepen Soldier resilience and were prioritized by Army National Guard senior leadership. More steps to build resilience within the Army National Guard will continue across the 50 states, three territories and the District of Columbia, all sharing the challenge of finding unique solutions to recurring problems such as post-traumatic stress and suicide among Soldiers.
Army Strong Community Centers: Serving Army Families
(Torchbearer Issue Paper, October 2010)
This Torchbearer Issue Paperlooks at how repeated deployment of Army Reserve Soldiers over the past years has required differing approaches to supporting geographically dispersed families. To ensure that these families are able to access Army services despite living a distance from the nearest installation, Army Strong Community Centers (ASCCs) have been opened to bridge the gap between distance and accessibility to information. The positive, tangible results garnered from the first three ASCCs have demonstrated the need for such facilities.
New Educational Opportunities for Soldiers and Families
(Torchbearer Issue Paper, October 2010)
This Torchbearer Issue Papertakes a look at Tutor.com, with which the Department of Defense has contracted to connect servicemembers and families seeking educational and professional guidance to certified, professional tutors or career specialists for one-on-one assistance whenever they need it. With approximately 2 million military children having experienced a parental deployment since 2001, the support provided by Tutor.com helps to relieve the concerns and stress on families during parental deployment.
Assembly Line to Custom Design: Reforming the Officer Development System
by Kent W. Park (Land Warfare Paper 81, October 2010)
This Land Warfare Paper discusses a whole-of-government approach to address future security threats. This approach calls for government agencies to leverage civilian expertise to provide integrated “soft-power” solutions to complement proven “hard-power” options. The paper examines how the U.S. government’s plan to combine these two approaches into an effective strategy (“smart power”) also necessitates an understanding that the development of junior officers is the most effective way to shape organizational culture. According to the author, this bottom-up approach requires a long-term perspective but will ultimately create the most durable cultural change.
by Earnest Y. Wong (Land Warfare Paper 80, October 2010)
Leveraging Science in the Manoeuvrist Approach to Counterinsurgency Operations
This Land Warfare Paper examines how military planners can utilize modern scientific principles to improve understanding of insurgencies and leverage what is learned into even better counterinsurgency (COIN) doctrine. In particular, the author addresses what we can discern from Disruptive Change, Complexity Theory and Markov Chains to help in formulating winning COIN strategies that will prevail in the 21st century. The paper discusses how the Manoeuvrist Approach, which British military doctrine defines as a focus on shattering an enemy’s will to fight through skillful identification of the enemy’s vulnerabilities, is instrumental to analyzing the insurgent fight.
A Shot in the Dark: The Futility of Long-Range Modernization Planning
by Eric A. Hollister (Land Warfare Paper 79, October 2010)
This Land Warfare Paper shows why the utility of long-range future modernization planning should be revisited in this era of persistent conflict. According to the author, the complexities of the environments for which the Army is required to plan makes predicting the future—and being prepared for the next war—impossible. The author examines changes that occurred during the post-Vietnam era, includes a review of past Army futures studies and discusses the Army’s most recent attempt at modernization, the Future Combat Systems program. The paper uses the National Security Strategy, the Quadrennial Defense Review and the Army Modernization Strategy to suggest a framework for future modernization and a less risky method for long-range futures studies.
Fiscal Year 2011 Army Budget: An Analysis
(ILW Special Report, October 2010)
Fiscal Year 2011 Army Budget: An Analysis details the resources required for the Army to accomplish its missions today and tomorrow. It examines the Army’s proposed budget in the context of the federal and Department of Defense budgets and breaks down requests according to funding authority and programs, from Soldiers’ pay to research and development. It explains budget terminology and procedures, including the supplemental funding process that is necessary for the Army to sustain the current level of operations and provide for Soldiers.
Capability Portfolio Reviews
(Defense Report 10-3, September 2010)
This Defense Report takes a look at the Capability Portfolio Review (CPR), a new tool created to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the whole range of Army programs, both material and non-material. While not designed to cut or save a certain dollar amount, the CPR is supposed to reveal potential savings by validating the link between requirements and capabilities. Two of 11 total CPRs have concluded, with the remainder scheduled to proceed over the next five years, ensuring that the warfighter receives the maximum capability and the taxpayer derives maximum value.
Looking Forward: People First
by Gregory Motes (Landpower Essay 10-2, September 2010)
This Landpower Essay examines the future operating environment of the U.S. Army in a world increasingly dependent on new technology. The author discusses the importance of educating and training Soldiers and leaders while developing new devices, systems and data networks. The author proposes that a balance between knowledge about technology and knowledge derived from contextual training or introspection will best ready the U.S. Army for future demands and challenges.
Grey Eminence: Fox Conner and the Art of Mentorship
by Edward Cox (Land Warfare Paper 78W, September 2010)
This Land Warfare Paper combines existing scholarship with long-forgotten references and unpublished original sources to achieve a comprehensive picture of Fox Conner, a dedicated public servant whose life and service to the Army and the nation are revealed primarily through passing references in the memoirs of other great men. Conner’s influence helped to shape the careers of George Patton, George Marshall and, most notably, President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The portrait that emerges here also provides a four-step model for developing strategic leaders that still holds true today.
New NATO Member States: The Benefits and Drawbacks of Enlargement
by Christine Le Jeune (Land Warfare Paper 77, September 2010)
This Land Warfare Paper addresses the question of NATO’s relevance by examining the results of its geographical expansion. Regardless of the conclusions reached in NATO’s 2010 Strategic Concept, the fact remains that the alliance is only as strong as its member states. A fundamental question over the past years has been whether or not NATO expanded too quickly to include members not able to effectively contribute to the collective security capabilities necessary for it to remain a credible defensive alliance. The paper examines this question by taking a closer look at the defense transformation of Slovenia and Bulgaria, two Southeast European states both admitted during the 2004 round of expansion.
Consequence Management: Steps in the Right Direction? by Christine Le Jeune (National Security Watch 10-2, September 2010)
This National Security Watch takes a look at the need to build capacity to respond to major national incidents—natural disasters, terrorism, large-scale cyber attacks, pandemics and other potential threats—and the collaborative efforts of federal, state and local governments, communities and public/private partnerships that are necessary to achieve that goal.
U.S. Army Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Changing Modern Warfare
(Torchbearer National Security Report, July 2010)
This Torchbearer National Security Report takes a look at rapidly evolving Army UAS technology and its impact on the need for reliable collection and dissemination of information on the battlefield. From the small hand-launched Raven to the mid-size Shadow to the larger Hunter and Extended Range Multi-Purpose systems and the ground control stations that keep them all in the air and on point, the Army’s “eyes in the sky” have proved to be vital battlefield assets.
Profile of the U.S. Army – A Reference Handbook (2010 Edition)
(ILW Special Report, July 2010)
A user-friendly reference book for people familiar with the Army and an easy-to-read introduction for family members, civilian employees, contractors and future Soldiers—takes a top-down approach, first describing the Army’s role as a key element in the national security structure and then flowing into the “why” and “how” of the Army’s organization. It also contains information and helpful graphics on the Soldier, the uniform, the Army’s command structure, Army families, installations and the Army’s current operations. For readers wishing to seek more details, each chapter includes a list of relevant websites. Finally, Profile contains a glossary of acronyms and maps illustrating locations of current Army combat corps and divisions, Army National Guard divisions and brigade combat teams, and Army Reserve direct reporting commands.
The (New?) National Security Strategy
by Douglas J. Schaffer (National Security Watch 10-1, July 2010)
This National Secuirty Watch compares the 2010 National Security Strategy (NSS) of the United States with previous versions in the context of goals, ways and means. While widely considered a departure from previous iterations, a closer look at the 2010 NSS compared to those of 2002 and 2006 show it to be not that substantively different. Additionally, the 2010 NSS advances a broad agenda that poses unique challenges to the planning and budgeting process; success will be largely dependent on the ability of the United States to organize and provide itself the means to execute.
Building Resilience: Comprehensive Soldier Fitness
(Torchbearer Issue Paper, April 2010)
This Torchbearer Issue Paper discusses Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF), a holistic fitness program for Soldiers, family members and Army civilians that is designed to enhance performance and build resilience. CSF is taking a deliberate approach to equipping Soldiers with the psychological tools to unlock their potential in this era of sustained operations, teaching thinking skills and coping strategies based on how to think rather than what to think. CSF consists of four program elements--the Global Assessment Tool, Comprehensive Resilience Modules, the Master Resilience Trainer program and Sustainment Resilience Training--that are mandatory for all Soldiers. Family members and Army civilians are also given the opportunity to participate. This holistic approach to fitness seeks to effectively and efficiently ensure the quality of life of those who serve the nation is commensurate with the quality of their service.
Today's Training and Education (Development) Revolution: The Future is Now
by Donald E. Vandergriff (Land Warfare Paper 76, April 2010)
This Land Warfare Paper discusses the changes the Army is making to its educational system to provide Soldiers with the best tools for success on the battlefield. Today’s highly complex operations have emphasized the importance of quality decisionmaking at junior levels. Even with modern command, control, communications, computer, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) capabilities, the noncommissioned officer or junior officer on the ground sometimes has the best situational awareness and thus is likely to make the best decision—but only if he or she is equipped, intellectually and culturally, to properly assess the situation and creatively arrive at the best solution. Adaptability, critical thinking and creativity have become critical skills for modern Soldiers. The Army’s new approach, Outcomes-Based Training & Education (OBT&E), is an educational philosophy that teaches both basic skills and aids the development of leaders, using the Combat Applications Training Course (CATC ) and the Adaptive Leader Methodology (ALM). These new training and education tools will produce the kind of flexible, adaptable Soldiers and leaders the modern battlefield demands.
Strengthening and Sustaining Army Families
(Torchbearer Issue Paper, April 2010)
This Torchbearer Issue Paper discusses the Army's newly-established Child, Adolescent and Family Behavioral Health Proponency (CAF-BHP), which supports and sustains comprehensive and integrated behavioral health care for military children and their families at all Army installations. The goal of the CAF-BHP is not to add to the number of programs that already exist but to capitalize on existing programs and achieve synergy from effective coordination, integration and targeted strengthening of current resources to better sustain Army families.
U.S. Army Special Operations Forces: Integral to the Army and the Joint Force
(Torchbearer National Security Report, March 2010)
This Torchbearer National Security Report discusses how Army special operations forces, teamed with general purpose forces, achieve strategic effects through tactical- and operational-level excellence on the battlefield and in lesser-known areas around the world. The ability to control and influence people establishes the strategic underpinnings of this nation's security and its land forces. Landpower--lethal, engaging, enduring--remains a keystone in the overarching integration of all elements of national power. The U.S. defense strategy reinforces the principle of balance: in the response to the current conflict while preparing for future ones; in preparing for full-spectrum operations; and between the cultural advantages that have provided security and the cultural changes needed to preserve it. Army special operations forces, a key element of landpower, are an integral part of the Army and the joint force and provide the nation with unique, sophisticated and tailored capabilities.
The Army Capstone Concept and Institutional Adaptation
(Landpower Essay 10-1, March 2010)
This Landpower Essay is a transcript of remarks made by GEN Martin E. Dempsey, Commanding General, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, during AUSA's Winter Symposium and Exposition in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, on 25 February 2010. He discusses the latest revision to the Army Capstone Concept, published in December 2009, that describes the broad capabilities the Army will require between now and 2028 to defend America and help to secure U.S. interests in the world. This Capstone Concept reconsiders, rethinks and challenges previous assumptions now that eight years of war have passed and the Army knows more about the 21st century enemy. GEN Dempsey describes the Army's objectives of decentralization, improved mission command, leader development and improving the Army's training and education system.
The 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review: Refocusing Priorities
(Defense Report 10-2, March 2010)
This Defense Report discusses the Defense Department's strategy outlined in the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review Report. The report itself describes the security environment and America's role in the world to provide context for its examination of all the elements of U.S. national defense plans, programs and policies. Four broad objectives are established: to prevail in today's wars; to prevent and deter conflict; to prepare to defeat adversaries and succeed in a wide range of contingencies; and to preserve and enhance the All-Volunteer Force. These top priorities set the direction that defense planning will take for the next four years.
Army Software Transformation: Delivering Applications to the Warfighter
(Torchbearer Issue Paper, February 2010)
This Torchbearer Issue Paper examines the current environment for software applications and how Army Software Transformation will help the Army's information systems radically decrease the time it takes to deliver relevant applications across the force. The Army's goal is for Soldiers to have a smartphone-like experience wherein applications, services and data are accessible globally without requiring end-user intervention or costly, inefficient and burdensome technical support. Faced with enemies skilled at exploiting cheap, commercially-available communications devices and off-the-shelf electronics, the Army has implemented this new approach to software acquisition and implementation to stay relevant to the challenges posed by the complex global security environment.
The Army Management Enterprise
(Defense Report 10-1, February 2010)
This Defense Report briefly examines how the Office of Business Transformation (OBT), established in April 2009, will help the Army run its business operations more effectively and efficiently, including business systems architecture, information technology acquisition oversight and business process reengineering. In October 2009, the Under Secretary of the Army was designated as the Army's Chief Management Officer, to work with the Army Secretary and other pertinent stakeholders to determine the missions, roles, responsibilities and staffing of the OBT. The Army's business transformation is driven by an urgent requirement to align the end-to-end business processes of the generating force, and the capabilities they provide, to the operational needs of an expeditionary and campaign-capable force.